Greek numbers

Jordan Bell
March 4, 2017

One-tenth Ex. 16:36; Nu. 18:26, 28; He. 7:1–10. Two-tenths Lev. 23:13. Three tenths Lev. 14:10. One-hundredths Neh 5:11. One-third: appears fourteen times in Revelation, refers to one of three parts which was to be destroyed Rev. 8. One-third 2 S. 18:2, one-half Ex. 25:10, 17, one-fourth 1 S. 9:8, one-fifth Gen 47:24, one-sixth Ezk. 46:14.

Two-thirds “double portion” Dt. 21:17, 2 K. 2:9, four-fifths “four parts” Gen. 47:24, nine-tenths “nine parts” Neh 11:1.

Diogenes Laertius, Vitae philosophorum 7.58 [5, p. 198]:

According to Diogenes [of Babylon] an appellative [προςηγορία] is a part of language which signifies a common quality, e.g. ‘man’, ‘horse’; a name [῎ονομα] is a part of language which indicates a peculiar quality, e.g. ‘Diogenes’, ‘Socrates’; a verb is a part of language which, according to Diogenes, signifies a non-compound predicate, or, as some say, a case-less constituent of a sentence which signifies something attachable to something or some things, e.g. ‘I write’, ‘I speak’.

Apollonius Dyscolus, Syntax 32.2 [2]

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, De compositione verborum chap. II [6, pp. 71–73]:

Composition is, as the very name indicates, a certain arrangement of the parts of speech, or elements of diction, as some call them. These were reckoned as three only by Theodectes and Aristotle and the philosophers of those times, who regarded nouns [’ον´οματα], verbs [‛πήματα] and connectives [ςυνδέςμους] as the primary parts of speech. Their successors, particularly the leaders of the Stoic school, raised the number to four, separating the articles from the connectives. Then the later inquirers divided the appellatives from the substantives, and represented the primary parts of speech as five. Others detached the pronouns from the nouns, and so introduced a sixth element. Others, again, divided the adverbs [ἐπιρρήματα] from the verbs, the prepositions from the connectives and the participles from the appellatives [προςηγοριϰῶν]; while others introduced still further subdivisions, and so multiplied the primary parts of speech. The subject would afford scope for quite a long discussion. Enough to say that the combination or juxtaposition of these primary parts, be they three, or four, or whatever may be their number, forms the so-called “members” (or clauses) of a sentence. Further, the fitting together of these clauses constitutes what are termed the “periods,” and these make up the complete discourse. The function of composition is to put words together in an appropriate order, to assign a suitable connexion to clauses, and to distribute the whole discourse properly into periods.

Dionysius Thrax, Tekhne XI [8, p. 23], [3, p. 176]:

There are eight parts of the sentence: noun [῎ονομα], verb, participle, article, pronoun, preposition, adverb [ἐπίρρημα], conjunction. For the appellative [προςηγορία] is a subspecies of the noun.

Dionysius Thrax, Tekhne XII [8, p. 33], [3, p. 178]:

There are the following subtypes of the noun (these also are referred to as ‘species’): proper, appellative [προςηγοριϰ´ον], attached [ἐπίϑετον], relative, quasi-relative, homonymous, synonymous, dionymous, eponymous, ethnic, interrogative, indefinite, anaphoric (also referred to by the names ‘similative’, ‘de?monstrative’, and ‘correlative’), collective, distributive, inclusive, onomatopoeic, generic, specific, ordinal [ἀριϑμητιϰ´ον], absolute, participatory.

Dionysius Thrax, Tekhne XII, [8, p. 44], [3, p. 180]:

Ταϰτιϰ`ον δέ ἐςτι τ`ο τάξιν δηλο῀υν, οἷον πρῶτος δε´υτερος τρίτος. ’Αριϑμητιϰ`ον δέ ἐςτι τ`ο ἀριϑμ`ον ςημαῖνον, οἷον εἷς δ´υο τρεῖς.
An ordinal noun is one which indicates order, such as ‘first, second, third’. A numeral noun is one which signifies number, such as ‘one, two, three’.

Dionysius Thrax, Tekhne XIX [8, p. 72], [3, p. 183]:

An adverb [’Επίρρημά] is a part of the sentence which is uninflected; it qualifies verbs or is added to verbs.

Dionysius Thrax, Tekhne XIX [8, p. 76], [3, p. 184]:

Τὰ δὲ ἀριϑμο῀υ δηλωτιϰά, οἷον δίς τρίς τετράϰις.
Some signify number, for example dis (twice), tris (thrice), tetrakis (four times).

onefold, twofold, threefold

firstly, secondly, thirdly

half, third, quarter, fifth

Kühner [4, p. 621], §181

cardinals, cardinalia, ον´οματα αριϑμητιϰά: answers π´οςοι, “how many?”, one, two, three, four

ordinals, ordinalia, ον´οματα ταϰτιϰά: answers π´οςτος, “which in order?”, first, second, third, fourth

numeral adverbs: answers “how many times?”, once, twice, thrice, four times

multiplicative adverbs how many parts: answers “into how many parts?”

substantive numerals: unit, pair, triply

multiplicatives, πολλαπλαςιαςτιϰά αριϑμητιϰά: the number of parts of which a whole is composed, answers “how many fold?”, single, double, triple, quadruple

proportionals, αναλογιϰά αριϑμητιϰά: answers “how many times more?”

fractions: half, third, fourth

numeral adverbs: firstly, secondly, thirdly: δε´υτερον, τρίτον

five ways, six ways: πενταχῶς, ἑξαχῶς

ποςαπλάςιον. Meno 83b [9, p. 118]: “How many times as big is it?”

Smyth Art. 347 [7]:

cardinals ordinals numeral adverb
1 α´ εἷς, μία, ἕν πρὼτ-ος, -η, -ον ἅπαξ
2 β´ δ´υο δε´υτερος δίς
3 γ´ τρεῖς, τρία τρίτος τρίς
4 δ´ τέτταρες, τέτταρα τέταρτος, -η, -ον τετράϰις
5 ε´ πέντε πέμπτος πεντάϰις
6 Ϛ´ ἕξ ἕϰτος ἑξάϰις
7 ζ´ ἑπτά ἕβδομος ἑπτάϰις
8 η´ ’οϰτὼ ῎ογδοος ’οϰτάϰις
9 ϑ´ ἐννέα ἔνατος ἐνάϰις
10 ι´ δέϰα δέϰατος, -η, -ον δεϰάϰις
11 ια´ ἕνδεϰα ἑνδέϰατος ἑνδεϰάϰις
12 ιβ´ δὼδεϰα δωδέϰατος δωδεϰάϰις
13 ιγ´ τρεῖς ϰαὶ δέϰα τρίτος ϰαὶ δέϰατος τρειςϰαιδεϰάϰις
14 ιδ´ τέτταρες ϰαὶ δέϰα τέταρτος ϰαὶ δέϰατος τετταρεςϰαιδεϰάϰις
15 ιε´ πεντεϰαίδεϰα πέμπτος ϰαὶ δέϰατος πεντεϰαιδεϰάϰις
16 ιϚ´ ἑϰϰαίδεϰα ἕϰτος ϰαὶ δέϰατος ἑϰϰαιδεϰάϰις
17 ιζ´ ἑπταϰαίδεϰα ἕβδομος ϰαὶ δέϰατος ἑπταϰαιδεϰάϰις
18 ιη´ ’οϰτωϰαίδεϰα ῎ογδοος ϰαὶ δέϰατος ’οϰτωϰαιδεϰάϰις
19 ιϑ´ ἐννεαϰαίδεϰα ἔνατος ϰαὶ δέϰατος ἐννεαϰαιδεϰάϰις
20 ϰ´ εἴϰοςι εἰϰοςτ´ος, -ή, -´ον εἰϰοςάϰις
21 ϰα´ εἷς ϰαὶ εἴϰοςι πρῶτος ϰαὶ εἰϰοςτ´ος εἰϰοςάϰις ἅπαξ
30 λ´ τριᾱ´ϰοντα τριᾱϰοςτ´ος τριᾱϰοντάϰις
40 μ´ τετταράϰοντα τετταραϰοςτ´ος τετταραϰοντάϰις
50 ν´ πεντήϰοντα πεντηϰοςτ´ος πεντηϰοντάϰις
60 ξ´ ἑξήϰοντα ἑξηϰοςτ´ος ἑξηϰοντάϰις
70 ο´ ἑβδομήϰοντα ἑβδομηϰοςτ´ος ἑβδομηϰοντάϰις
80 π´ ’ογδοήϰοντα ’ογδοηϰοςτ´ος ’ογδοηϰοντάϰις
90 Ϟ´ ἐνενήϰοντα ἐνενηϰοςτ´ος ἐνενηϰοντάϰις
100 ρ´ ἑϰατ´ον ἑϰατοςτ´ος, -ή, -´ον ἑϰατοντάϰις
200 ς´ διᾱϰ´οςι-οι, -αι, -α διᾱϰοςιοςτ´ος διᾱϰοςιάϰις
300 τ´ τριᾱϰ´οςι-οι, -αι, -α τριᾱϰοςιοςτ´ος τριᾱϰοςιάϰις
400 υ´ τετραϰ´οςι-οι, -αι, -α τετραϰοςιοςτ´ος τετραϰοςιάϰις
500 φ´ πενταϰ´οςι-οι, -αι, -α πενταϰοςιοςτ´ος πενταϰοςιάϰις
600 χ´ ἑξαϰ´οςι-οι, -αι, -α ἑξαϰοςιοςτ´ος ἑξαϰοςιάϰις
700 ψ´ ἑπταϰ´οςι-οι, -αι, -α ἑπταϰοςιοςτ´ος ἑπταϰοςιάϰις
800 ω´ ’οϰταϰ´οςι-οι, -αι, -α ’οϰταϰοςιοςτ´ος ’οϰταϰοςιάϰις
900 ϡ´ ἐναϰ´οςιοι ἐναϰοςιοςτ´ος ἐναϰοςιάϰις
1000 ,α χῑ´λι-οι, -αι, -α χῑλιοςτ´ος, -ή, -´ον χῑλιάϰις
2000 ,β διςχῑ´λι-οι, -αι, -α διςχῑλιοςτ´ος διςχῑλιάϰις
3000 ,γ τριςχῑ´λι-οι, -αι, -α τριςχῑλιοςτ´ος τριςχῑλιάϰις
10000 ,ι μῡ´ρι-οι, -αι, -α μῡριοςτ´ος μῡριάϰις
20000 ,ϰ διςμῡ´ριοι διςμῡριοςτ´ος διςμῡριάϰις
100000 ,ρ δεϰαϰιςμῡ´ριοι δεϰαϰιςμῡριοςτ´ος δεϰαϰιςμῡριάϰις
1 ἅπαξ
2 `̣ις δίχα
3 τρίς τρίχα
substantive numerals
1 μονάς
2 δυάς
3 τριάς
4 τετράς
5 πεντάς
6 ἑξάς
7 ἑβδομάς
8 ’ογδοάς
9 ἐννεάς
10 δεϰάς
11 ἑνδεϰάς
12 δοδεϰάς
20 εἰϰάς
40 τεςςαραϰοντάς
100 ἑϰατοντάς
1000 χιλιάς
10000 μυριάς
multiplicatives proportionals
1 ἁπλ´οος, -ο῀υς
2 διπλ´οος, -ο῀υς διπλάςιος
3 τριπλ´οος, -ο῀υς τριπλάςιος
4 τετραπλάςιος

Nicomachus, Introductio arithmetica I.18 [1, p. 214]:

Once more, then; the multiple [πολλαπλαςίων] is the species of the greater first and most original by nature, as straightway we shall see, and it is a number [ἀριϑμ`ος] which, when it is observed in comparison with another, contains the whole of that number more than once. For example, compared with unity, all the successive numbers beginning with 2 generate in their proper order the regular forms of the multiple; for 2, in the first place, is and is called the double, 3 triple, 4 quadruple, and so on; for ‘more than once’ means twice, or three times, and so on in succession as far as you like.


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